Hadano (秦野市 Hadano-shi) is a city in west-central Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.
As of May 2017, the city has an estimated population of 166,140 and a population density of 1,600 persons per km2. The total area is 103.76 km2.
The name "Hadano" appears as a geographic term in the Heian period Wamyō Ruijushō, as "Hatano", and there has been scholarly speculation as to possible connections with the Nara period Hata clan. From the late Heian period until the Kamakura period, the area was divided into shōen controlled by descendants of Fujiwara no Hidesato, including the Sengoku-period daimyō, the Hatano clan. During the Edo period, it was nominally part of Odawara Domain, although large portions were tenryō territory controlled by the shōgun in Edo through various hatamoto.
After the Meiji Restoration and with the establishment of the district system in 1878, the area came under the control of Ōsumi District (大住郡 Ōsumi-gun) and became Hadano town on April 1, 1889. On March 26, 1896, Ōsumi District and Yurugi District were merged to form Naka District. The town began to experience rapid growth after the opening of the Odakyu Electric Railway in 1927. Hadano became a city on January 1, 1955, through the merger of former towns of Hadano and Minamihadano with the villages of Kitahadano and Higashihadano. The new city annexed neighboring the village of One, and the village of Kamihadano (from Ashigarakami District) later the same year, and annexed the town of Nishihadano in 1964.
Kanagawa Prefecture (神奈川県 Kanagawa-ken) is a prefecture located in southern Kantō region of Japan. The capital of the prefecture is Yokohama. Kanagawa is part of the Greater Tokyo Area. Kanagawa Prefecture is home to Kamakura and Hakone, two highly popular side trip destinations from Tokyo.
During the Edo period, the western part of Sagami Province was governed by the daimyō of Odawara Castle, while the eastern part was directly governed by the Tokugawa shogunate in Edo (Tokyo).
Commodore Matthew Perry landed in Kanagawa in 1853 and 1854 and signed the Convention of Kanagawa to force open Japanese ports to the United States. Yokohama, the largest deep-water port in Tokyo Bay, was opened to foreign traders in 1859 after several more years of foreign pressure, and eventually developed into the largest trading port in Japan. Nearby Yokosuka, closer to the mouth of Tokyo Bay, developed as a naval port and now serves as headquarters for the U.S. 7th Fleet and the fleet operations of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. After the Meiji period, many foreigners lived in Yokohama City, and visited Hakone. The Meiji Government developed the first railways in Japan, from Shinbashi (in Tokyo) to Yokohama in 1872.
The epicenter of the Great Kantō earthquake in 1923 was deep beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay. It devastated Tokyo, the port city of Yokohama, surrounding prefectures of Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka, and caused widespread damage throughout the Kantō region. The sea receded as much as 400 metres from the shore at Manazuru Point, and then rushed back towards the shore in a great wall of water which swamped Mitsuishi-shima. At Kamakura, the total death toll from earthquake, tsunami, and fire exceeded 2,000 victims. At Odawara, ninety percent of the buildings collapsed immediately, and subsequent fires burned the rubble along with anything else left standing.
Kamakura (鎌倉市 Kamakura-shi) is a city in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, about 50 kilometres (31 miles) south-south-west of Tokyo. Although Kamakura proper is today rather small, it is often described in history books as a former de facto capital of Japan as the seat of the shogunate and of the Regency during the Kamakura period. Kamakura was designated as a city on November 3, 1939.
As of September 1, 2016, the modern city has an estimated population of 172,302 and a population density of 4,358.77 persons per km2. The total area is 39.53 km2 (15.26 sq mi).
As a coastal city with a high number of seasonal festivals, as well as ancient Buddhist and Shinto shrines and temples, Kamakura is a popular tourist destination within Japan.
Before the opening of the Entrances, access on land was so difficult that the Azuma Kagami reports that Hōjō Masako came back to Kamakura from a visit to Sōtōzan temple in Izu bypassing by boat the impassable Inamuragasaki cape and arriving in Yuigahama. Again according to the Azuma Kagami, the first of the Kamakura shōguns, Minamoto no Yoritomo, chose it as a base partly because it was his ancestors' land (his yukari no chi), partly because of these physical characteristics.
To the north of the city stands Mt. Genji (Genjiyama) (源氏山) (92 m or 302 ft), which then passes behind the Daibutsu and reaches Inamuragasaki and the sea.
From the north to the east Kamakura is surrounded by Mt. Rokkokuken (六国見) (147 m or 482 ft), Mt. Ōhira (大平山) (159 m or 522 ft), Mt. Jubu (鷲峰山) (127 m or 417 ft), Mt. Tendai (天台山)(141 m or 463 ft), and Mt. Kinubari (衣張山) (120 m or 390 ft), which extend all the way to Iijimagasaki and Wakae Island, on the border with Kotsubo and Zushi. From Kamakura's alluvional plain branch off numerous narrow valleys like the Urigayatsu, Shakadōgayatsu, Ōgigayatsu, Kamegayatsu, Hikigayatsu, and Matsubagayatsu valleys. (The ending "ヶ谷" meaning "valley", common in place names and usually read "-gaya", in Kamakura is pronounced "-gayatsu").
Kamakura is crossed by the Namerigawa river, which goes from the Asaina Pass in northern Kamakura to the beach in Yuigahama for a total length of about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi). The river marks the border between Zaimokuza and Yuigahama.
In administrative terms, the municipality of Kamakura borders with Yokohama to the north, with Zushi to the east, and with Fujisawa to the west. It includes many areas outside the Seven Entrances as Yamanouchi, Koshigoe (腰越), Shichirigahama, and Ofuna, and is the result of the fusion of Kamakura proper with the cities of Koshigoe, absorbed in 1939, Ofuna, absorbed in 1948, and with the village of Fukasawa, absorbed in 1948.